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Radiation Is All Around You Ketchup left overnight on dinner plates has a longer half-life than radioactive waste. Rates from a night table alarm clock manufactured in the 50s emit about 40 counts per minute a foot in front of the glass cover. Recently, a fad in jewelry has led to the use of bare watch faces and other parts from broken watches combined as pins or brooches. Some of these have the radium containing paint on them and are quite dangerous. The paint could flake or rub off and be inhaled or eaten. Watches manufactured since the mid ‘s use tritium, H3, a radioactive form of heavy hydrogen, with a half-life of Both of these elements are weak beta and gamma emitters and cannot send many particles beyond the cover glass of the watch. However, greater quantities of these elements must be used to make the same amount of light from luminous paint. Thorium oxide coated gas lamp mantles used in ornamental gas lanterns and gas burning camping lamps are radioactive.

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Constitutional Attorney Well, I have done it! I have read the entire text of proposed House Bill I studied it with particular emphasis from my area of expertise, constitutional law. I was frankly concerned that parts of the proposed law that were being discussed might be unconstitutional. What I found was far worse than what I had heard or expected.

(p. ) Although many firms conduct business across national boundaries, most global commerce is carried out by a small number of powerful firms. TRUE 3. (p. ) Global commerce has taken place for hundreds of years, dating back to the 15th century. TRUE 4. (p.

The first model to be shown here is the 9-pdr RML 6-cwt gun mounted on a wooden block trail carriage. All others will follow in the coming days. This type of carriage was widely used in the colonies especially in India. It was produced for use by field, horse and naval artillery and fired a projectile weighing approximately 9 pounds 4. In , the 9-pdr RML 8cwt field gun was selected by the Royal Artillery to replace the more sophisticated Armstrong pdr Rifled Breech Loader RBL of the same weight which had acquired a reputation for unreliability.

The gun was rifled using the system developed by William Palliser, in which studs protruding from the side of the shell engaged with three spiral grooves in the barrel. In , a 6 cwt version was introduced for horse artillery and was later adopted for field artillery use, replacing the 8 cwt version. All variants used the same ammunition, which took the form of shrapnel shell, case shot and common shell. The 9 pounder remained in front-line service with the Royal Artillery until when the pdr RML pounder 8 cwt gun was introduced, however it remained in use with colonial forces until and saw action in the Anglo-Zulu War of , the First Boer War of [1] and the Anglo-Egyptian War in Egypt.

In the process, the top part of the plinth was severely damaged with some of its over-sized capping stones dislodged and toppled over. The rest of the structure sustained similar damage. The stone plinth dates back to the Hospitaller period and originally mounted a large timber crucifix. This crucifix was removed from it during an act of incredible bravado carried out by members of the Zejtun Militia to spite the occupying French enclosed in Fort San Salvatore but a few meters away during the French Blockade in The crucifix was marched from there to Zejtun were it was re-erected in the town square on the right side of the parish church where it remains to this day.


A roti of fine white maida, leavened, rolled out oval in shape, sprinkled with nigella kalonji seeds and baked in a tandoor or ordinary oven. Small, mud plastered ovens closely resembling present-day tandoors’ have been excavated at Kalibangan, and Indus Valley site. In about AD , Amir Khusrau notes naan-e-tanuk light bread and naan-e-tanuri cooked in a tandoor oven at the imperial court in Delhi.

Naan was in Mughal times a popular breakfast food, accompanied by kheema or kabab, of the humbler Muslims. It is today associated with Punjabis, and is a common restaurant item, rather han a home-made one, all over India.

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Much information is available on espresso beverage, machines, foodservice establishments but precious little regarding this particular coffee offering. The connection between cappuccino and the Capuchin monks is tenuous at best. We have no proof these folks actually consumed this beverage. None of our historic Italian food history resources mention Cappuccino. Our survey of historic USA newspaper confirms the popularity of cappuccino in the early s.

Older references mention ingredients including cinnamon but not proportions. The word means literally ‘capucin’, and its application to coffee is generally taken to be a reference to the colour of the habit work by monks of the Order of Friars Minor Capuchins, an independent branch of Franciscans the word capuchin itself is derived ultimately from Latin cappa, ‘hood’, which comes from caput, ‘head’. Cappuccino probably established itself in English in the coffee bars of the s A traditional beverage of Italy, cappuccino is made by forcing steam through milk or cream to form a creamy topping for the coffee, though in America it may be served simply with whipped cream on top.

The drink is supposedly named after a Capuchin monk in whose garden coffee was grown in Brazil in Others say the name derives from the drink’s resemblance to the tonsured heads of Capuchin monks.

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In order to do this the Forces of Evil decided they must divide the peoples of the world against each other on various issues. Dating back into antiquity the Aryan and Semitic races were driven into enmity against each other to serve the secret ambitions of their atheistic-materialistic leaders. Had the people of the Aryan and Semitic races remained steadfast to their belief in God, and faithful to His commandments, the Forces of Evil could never have accomplished their evil purpose.

The term Aryan actually denotes the lingual groups otherwise known as Indo-European or Indo-Germanic. It comprises two groups.

Global commerce has taken place for hundreds of years, dating back to the 15 th century.

The Anglo-Saxons kept slaves, but although serfdom survived for many years, slavery had all but gone from England by the 12th century. Certainly the earliest colonies, the West Indies and Virginia could not have survived without slaves. The British were not the first Europeans in the slave trade. The Portuguese had established themselves as traders a century earlier. Our story, here in the sixteenth century, centres on three voyages of John Hawkin s.

Hawkins was the first established English slave trader. Between and he made such profits so lucrative that he was supported by the Queen who showed her investment by donating two of her own ships, the Jesus of Lubeck and the Minion. The pattern was consistent. Hawkins sailed for the west coast of Africa and, sometimes with the help of other African natives, kidnapped villagers. He would then cross the Atlantic and sell his cargo, or those who survived the voyage, to the Spanish.

The slave trade was better business than plantations. Sir John Hawkins For Hawkins, the trade ended in when his fleet, which included a ship commanded by Francis Drake, took shelter from a hurricane in the Gulf of Mexico.

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Complex Civilization Begins 2: Communities grew denser and they had to draw more resources from a smaller area. Using their learned knowledge from the environment, humans began to experiment with agriculture, which became a revolution. Farming produced a surplus of food, allowing others to take up new work.

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Wikipedia An analysis of temperature data since all but rules out the possibility that global warming in the industrial era is just a natural fluctuation in the earth’s climate, according to a new study by McGill University physics professor Shaun Lovejoy. The study, published online April 6 in the journal Climate Dynamics, represents a new approach to the question of whether global warming in the industrial era has been caused largely by man-made emissions from the burning of fossil fuels.

Rather than using complex computer models to estimate the effects of greenhouse-gas emissions, Lovejoy examines historical data to assess the competing hypothesis: The climate reconstructions take into account a variety of gauges found in nature, such as tree rings, ice cores, and lake sediments. And the fluctuation-analysis techniques make it possible to understand the temperature variations over wide ranges of time scales. For the industrial era, Lovejoy’s analysis uses carbon-dioxide from the burning of fossil fuels as a proxy for all man-made climate influences — a simplification justified by the tight relationship between global economic activity and the emission of greenhouse gases and particulate pollution, he says.

While his new study makes no use of the huge computer models commonly used by scientists to estimate the magnitude of future climate change, Lovejoy’s findings effectively complement those of the International Panel on Climate Change IPCC , he says. That range is more precise than — but in line with—the IPCC’s prediction that temperatures would rise by 1.

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For centuries, tidal currents had made ocean travel particularly difficult and risky for the ships that were then available, and as such there had been very little, if any, maritime contact between the peoples living in these continents. Between and , approximately , sailors engaged in the slave trade visited West Africa. In particular, European traders wanted to trade for gold , which could be found in western Africa, and also to find a maritime route to “the Indies” India , where they could trade for luxury goods such as spices without having to obtain these items from Middle Eastern Islamic traders.

This diversity led Thornton to describe the initial “exploration of the Atlantic” as “a truly international exercise, even if many of the dramatic discoveries were made under the sponsorship of the Iberian monarchs”. That leadership later gave rise to the myth that “the Iberians were the sole leaders of the exploration”.

Global commerce has taken place for hundreds of years, dating back to the 15th century.

Jump to navigation Jump to search Europe attracts more tourists than anywhere else; the continent welcomes more than million international visitors annually, more than half of the global market. Out of Earth’s ten most visited countries, seven are in Europe, with good reason. Although Europe is not one country, the ease of crossing borders might make you think otherwise and transport infrastructure is generally efficient and well-maintained.

At the other end of a short ride on a starkly modern high speed train , a brief flight , or an easy drive , you will likely be able to delve into a new phrasebook and culture. Europe has cultural heritage dating back more than three millennia: Countless kingdoms, republics and empires have left archaeological sites and old towns galore and the most magnificent cathedrals in the world for you to explore.

Aside from history, Europe is the home of high culture, is renowned for its diverse cuisines, and is justly celebrated for its exciting and romantic cities. Europe stretches from the shivering Arctic Ocean in the north to the pleasantly warm subtropical Mediterranean Sea in the south and contains a vast array of temperate climates and variety of landscapes in between. Whilst Europe is connected to the Asian continent, for historical reasons a boundary is usually drawn at the Ural mountains and the Caucasus.

Russia and Turkey , which are considered at least partially European in culture, are geographically mostly on the Asian side of this divide. Click a region or city to explore! A rich and often turbulent history, with wonderful nature, charming multicultural towns, impressive monasteries and citadels dotting the hillsides, and mighty mountains liberally sprinkled with beautiful forests and pleasant lakes. Fascinating states with glorious beaches along an extensive coastline, medieval towns, and beautiful natural scenery.

Benelux Belgium , Luxembourg , Netherlands A largely flat area with a lot to offer.

Ships and Shipping in Southeast Asia

See Article History History of publishing, an account of the selection, preparation, and marketing of printed matter from its origins in ancient times to the present. The activity has grown from small beginnings into a vast and complex industry responsible for the dissemination of all manner of cultural material; its impact upon civilization is impossible to calculate.

This article treats the history and development of book, newspaper, and magazine publishing in its technical and commercial aspects. The preparation and dissemination of written communication is followed from its beginnings in the ancient world to the modern period. For additional information on the preparation of early manuscripts, see writing. A more detailed examination of printing technology can be found in printing.

Although many firms conduct business across national boundaries, most global commerce is carried out by a small number of powerful firms. 3. Global commerce has taken place for hundreds of years, dating back to the 15 th century. 4. The World Bank makes currency exchange easier for member countries so that they can participate in global trade. 5.

However, much has happened since it went up, including the Blogger outage. Scroll down for a report on that. More new posts will be added below this one. The essay below is the conclusion of the ninth part in a series by Takuan Seiyo. See the list at the bottom of this post for links to the previous installments. Their main endeavor has been to enforce their compulsory e.

History of Europe

Contact Me This chronology is meant to help provide a sense of historical context for students of Restoration and 18th-century British literature. The chronology is intended for browsing, with the assumption that meandering through portions of it is the best way to get a sense of the historical context around the specific moment or era you are interested in. The chronology is focused on the period from to , that is, from the period of the Civil Wars through the end of the reign of George III.

Study 64 chapter 6 flashcards from Missy F. on StudyBlue. Global commerce has taken place for hundreds of years, dating back to the 15 th century. true. t/f. although many firms conduct business across national boundaries, most global commerce is carried out by a small number of powerful firms.

In archaic times , ancient Greeks , Etruscans and Celts established settlements in the south , the centre and the north of Italy respectively, while various Italian tribes and Italic peoples inhabited the Italian peninsula and insular Italy. In 27 BC, Augustus established the Roman Empire and inaugurated the Pax Romana , two centuries of stability and relative peace in which Italy flourished as the leading political and economic centre of the known world. The death of the last of the good emperors , Marcus Aurelius , and the crisis of the third century marked the beginning of the decline of Rome.

The Empire went through major changes in the following centuries, including the establishment of a tetrarchy in under Diocletian and the end of the persecutions of Christians with the Edict of Milan of under Constantine. The Bishop of Rome was granted religious primacy with the Edict of Thessalonica in and the West collapsed amid barbarian invasions in , when Odoacer deposed Romulus Augustus. The Roman Pontiff and the German Emperor became the universal powers of Italy and Europe, but then entered in conflict for the investiture controversy and the clash between their factions: The crusades launched by Pope Urban II and his successors proved to be successful for the maritime republics: Italy first experienced the Commercial Revolution , which caused the European economy to shift from agriculture to trade, and became the birthplace of banking and universities.

Venice entered in control of the mediterranean trade routes and consolidated a maritime empire after the Sack of Constantinople of the Fourth Crusade and the Venetian-Genoese wars.

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Personal use only; commercial use is strictly prohibited for details see Privacy Policy and Legal Notice. For a long time, historians restricted their role to examination of regional peddling trade carried out in small ships. Research on ships and trade networks in the past few decades, however, has returned considerable agency to local societies, particularly to Austronesian speakers of insular Southeast Asia, from proto-historic to early modern times.

As far in the past as two thousand years ago, following locally developed shipbuilding technologies and navigational practices, they built large and sophisticated ships that plied South China Sea and Indian Ocean routes, as documented by 1st-millennium Chinese and later Portuguese sources and now confirmed by nautical archaeology. Textual sources also confirm that local shipmasters played a prominent part in locally and internationally run trade networks, which firmly places their operations into the mainstream of Asian global maritime history.

Although many firms conduct business across national boundaries, most global commerce is carried out by a small number of powerful firms. 3. Global commerce has taken place for hundreds of years, dating back to the 15 th century.

History The documented history of Iran begins with the Achaemenian dynasty dating back about years ago. A significant era marked by decisive unification of the pars tribes during the reign of Astyages and his grandson, Cyrus, who initially formed an extensive, centralized and mighty empire. Although according to will the “Aryans”, inhabitants of the vast Iranian plateau, were not the founders of civilization and followed the Babylonian as well as Egyption examples yet their ingenious Souls enabled them to transform those models, institute the first autonomous nation and establish a well-organized financial system.

Ironically, Achaemenian’s most remarkable military expedition against the Greeks took place in B. Darius, another prominent king of the mentioned dynasty, divided his empire into tewenty states or “satrapi” and accordingly appointed powerful rulers for all. He also began building roads to facilitate trade, enhance relations among the states and attain his military goals. Establishment of a tax and wage system for the labour, introduction of a unified measuring system, emergence of private banks, granting of loans for agricultural purposes and coin minting highlight the worthy accomplishments of this particular era.

Appropriately, Roman Ghirshman also has noted that once the use of coins became common overland and over seas trade rapidly extended to distant lands. The Royal messengers, chapars, would travel the long and vast roads of Achaemenian empire to deliver the Royal decrees or commands to the state rulers as well as military commanders and return with reports on the state of affairs. The messengers would then deliver the communications to the “Chapar House”, present day post office, situated along the route and the process would continue until reaching the final destination.

The “Silk Road” too was one of the ancient trade routes which led to Kashgar from two opposite directions of north and south. This major historical route connecting the west to the east was known as the Great Road of Khorasan or “the Silk Road”, as previously mentioned. The pre-Islam civilization of Iran takes pride in such innovations, particularly because the management and maintenance of the “King’s Great Road” 25 Centuries ago constituted great honor for Iranians among all nations.

The Crusades – Pilgrimage or Holy War?: Crash Course World History #15

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